Thursday, 15 January 2015

Gallery Design Presentation

Yesterday i presented my finished Gallery Design Project. My design focused on the journey from the street and through the building, allowing people options and in certain spaces changing the behaviour of how art is viewed. In places my design has been direcctly influenced by alot of the research presented within this blog, whether it was researched for the purpose of my project or not. In particular the social value and the spatial psychology research has directly influenced my design desicions and spatial requirements of the interior spatial development of my design.

Gallery One
From the street the design chanels you towards the large glass front door, on the way you pass tall thin cut out windows that allow you tiny glimspes of the interior experience, teasing you before the space is revealed. Disconnecting certain wall connections by a few centimeters and added voids in the first and second floors allow natural light to create interesting shapes within the space, and also builds a connection between the three floors and the different spaces within these floors, previewing and pulling you into the building.

 street view  Goldsmith Street

street view elevation

entrance render

entrance render 

whole building exploded view

 first floor render
section - south 

second floor render

 section - west

 double height gallery space (with second floor viewing deck) render

 pinned up in the forum in the new newton part of the city campus

The Psychology of Space

As im currently working on a gallery design project i have become interested in the psychology of space. One of the problems ive found throughout this project is that the physical environment has to be a backdrop and that the art or content is the main feature of the space. I found stripping back and designg purely for the building journey and not for astetic purposes a re-freshing challenge. Previously, durring my under-graduate studies and beyond i have designed spaces that as well as obviously serving a function also look aestetically pleasing. This is not to say that art galleries cant be beautifully designed, as my previous research shows, but that the interior architecture of a gallery can be limited. Focusing my design on the journey or the emotional spatial experience rather than the astetic i started researching the psychology of space and found a lecture series by a Professor Tim Stock of Parsons New School For Design. The professor released his lectue on The Psychology of Space on Slideshare, below i have featured some extracts of the lecture which i found to be of particular interest and would help me in moving forward with my gallery design. I have also included the link to the whole lecture slideshow as i found the entire thing of great interest even if not immediately directly relevant.


Tim Stock. (2010). The Psychology of Space (Design Research Methods). Available: Last accessed 12/1/2015.

The Curious Incident of The Dog In The Night-time

At the begining of January I went with my family to see 'The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nightime' at the Gielgud Theatre in London. The book to stage adaptation follows the story of a young boy with asperger's-like symptoms and the mystery surrounding the death of a neighbours dog.

When we reached our seats high up in the theatre i didnt know much about the story and felt quite aprehensive about what to expect and whether i would enjoy it. However once i was sat down and looking at the stage i was intrigued and eager to see what was to come. The stage looked like a gaint grided cube, like something from Tron or the inside of a computer. Imediately this changed my perception from the pesimistic outlook on the ensueing experience i walked into the theatre with, to one of excitment. I was looking forward to seeing the stage in action, and it didnt disapoint, you could say the set literally stole the show.

Never changing its ohysical state from a giant grided cube, the stage transformed time and time again throughout the whole performance, through lighting, clever computer graphics and the actor themselves it was easy to imagine the not only the physical setting of the scene being played out but also the mental state of the lead character. The production design not only served the purpose of aiding the story in a physical way but also gave across a snese of atmosphere and emotion when the main character was placed in different situations, you were able to understand almost what was going on inside the characters head through the set. The link below is to a BBC webpage where a short clip of an interview with the production design team talks about the 'design elements'.

The short video discription given of the video contents reads..."Director, Marianne Elliott, explains how the design had to be imaginative and creative, to represent Christopher’s mind. The design had to be non-naturalistic, instead light and agile. The designer Bunny Christie explains her reasons behind the designs.

Footage from the show demonstrates how the design ideas were realised in performance. As time and place jump around in the story, the set had to accommodate this. The design reflects Christopher’s mind being a ‘laboratory’. The lighting designer, Paule Constable comments on how the lighting was cool, white and controlled to represent how Christopher saw things. The lighting is as busy as Christopher is, with lots of changes. The use of a model box in the design process is explained."#

In all i was pleasently suprised by this play, the whole thing including the performance and story were fantastic and i would definately recommend to anyone to go and see it. I think, briefly, in places as with many stories (even though overall i absolutely loved it) the story did get a bit slow which i only realised once id thought about what the experience would have been like had i seen the play in a more realistic traditional physical stage setting. However this was something i hadnt noticed thanks to the ever present stimulus of the very modern stage design. Having previously only seen very traditional style plays where built physical sets were used as aids, this imaginative space clearly reflected the modern digital climate and made for a broader more exciting experience.


BBC. (2013). 'The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time' - design elements. Available: Last accessed 10/01/2015.

Wednesday, 17 December 2014

Design For Everyone

Unfortunately my move from under-grad to post-grad has meant that i had to make the move back into my parents home whilst i continue my studies, as an overtly independant person this was a tough but neccesary transition. However moving back home has become a rather different experience to the one i left many years ago. In 2010 my mum was unfortunately diagnosed with Multiple Sclorosis and has since rapidly lost the use of her balance and left leg, this leaves her heavily dependant on other people and regularily on a wheelchair. As an independant person its a sad contrast to want more independance than my family home whilst watching someone within it lose their independance. My mum is a fairly upbeat person and doesnt appear to let her illness hinder her, if she wants to do something she will find a way, even if it takes her forever. Sharing in this experience i have come to realise how influential design really is on the quality of life of a disabled person. When designing in the past i have previously overlooked the required functions of my design for someone of limited mobillity and often put them in as a second thought or because of legal requirements but when living it you realise just how much designing for everyone really does make the difference. In my mind my mother retaining the same independance she once had relies solely on design. Through design of space, products and services that should be, but arent always available my mum would be able to do everything she has done before, just in a different way. I feel not only is design fundamental in giving back what illness strips people of but it also plays a big part in the perceptions illness. Last year my dad started installing aids in our house for my mum. He went out, bought some handles etc, went upstairs and started installing the first of many. When my mum went in to inspect the handle he'd put on the wall in the shower, she was not impressed, he'd bought a large white chunky plastic handle that looked like it belonged in a hospital or a public disabled toilet. It appears to me that the limited design solutions for such products results in the function negating the aestic. Needless to say the handle was removed and a more contemporary out of the box solution was installed that integrated the presence of illness rather than exclamated it. Unsure of what exactly was available in terms of design for someone like my mum and others i went to research design solutions, designs for everyone.

I found an article on CNN, which talked about Don Norman, a design professor at the Northwestern University in Illinois, a champion of human-centered design -- where wants and needs of individuals are the primary consideration in the design process, and the author of ''The Design of Future Things''. Professor Norman issued a challenge to designers and engineers across the world to create things that work for everyone. 
"It is about time we designed things that can be used by ALL people -- which is the notion behind accessible design. Designing for people with disabilities almost always leads to products that work better for everyone." (Norman cited by Steere, 2013)
using the improvement of the design of baths and showers for people with sensory impairments as an example, he said these changes would further benefit everyone. The technology required for such projects is currently being developed and in Korea, designers Changduk Kim and Youngki Hong have designed a "universal toilet", a design that could see the extinction of the seperated disabled toilet. (Steere 2013)

However despite such innovations, Professor Norman noted that the thought process of designers would still need a change in mind set, especially of major companies. 
"The most important first step is to increase the awareness of designers and companies of the need to accommodate everyone. The disabled are not just some small, disenfranchised group: they represent all of us. So the first step is education, awareness, and empathy." (Norman cited by Steere 2013)
Finally Professor Norman stated that he hoped further care would be taken within the designs, asking the same questions i did off the back of shower-handle-gate...
"why are so many aids so ugly? Why can't we rally the design community to make beautiful, elegant canes, walkers, wheelchairs, and other items?" (Norman cited by Steere 2013)
Having also found interior design companies dedicated to creating bespoke beautiful interiors that meet the needs of a person with a disability in a contemporary way, it would appear that this is a design question slowly makng its way to the surface. I personally think that the future will see a big change in the approach to design in terms of the differentiation of purpose and people, and universal designs will become more apparent due to the rapid advancement of technological capabilities. 


Disability Horizons. (2013). Motion: stylish accessible interiors.Available: Last accessed 17/12/2014.

Mike Steere. (2008). Designers challenged to include disabled. Available: Last accessed 17/12/2014.

Urbanology; Jane Jacobs

I have recently taken an interest in urbanology, and started reading a book by writer, urbanologist and activist, Jane Jacobs called, "The Death and Life of Great American Cities." This led me to research, Jane Jacobs further and the idea of Urbanology. So what is Urbanology? According to the Institute of Urbanology's website (2014), Urbanology is defined as;

"the understanding of incremental developmental processes and daily practices in any given locality through direct engagement with people and places. The institute contributes to the debate on urban development by engaging with local community groups, creating new concepts, implemnting projects and recommending strategies and policies."

In the book, Jane Jacobs() has used ethnographic research methods of observing first hand the districts and neighbourhoods of New York, in particular her home district of Greenwhich Village, which she frequently refers to throught the book. The book has four parts, in which Jacobs puts across different ideaologies that all in turn affect the planning and organisation of our built environments and the subsequent spaces and layouts, criticising previous idealogues of what cities should be like, such as Le Corbusier and Ebenezer Howard, to what they are in reality, complex organic systems. (Jacobs, 1961)

“Old ideas can sometimes use new buildings. New ideas must use old buildings.” (Jacobs, 1961)

The four main areas of interest for Jane Jacobs were; cities as ecosystems, mixed use development, bottom- up community planning and the case for higher density.

The quick 2 minute video below shows an interview with Jane Jacobs in which she commented on the rigid, outdated process of designers, architects and politians when it came to city planning and instead recognised that actually going and observing successful city spaces was infact, "most impotant", when it comes to understanding how they work. From these observations Jacobs began to see connections and noted that people werent just wandering around only thinking of where they were going but that people were affecting the safety of the city and promoting their causes, she comments that "the more you watch the more interesting connections you saw." Jacbos also makes the point that it isnt just the human conncetions or relationships with the space but parks are connected to pavements and so on.

“…that the sight of people attracts still other people, is something that city planners and city architectural designers seem to find incomprehensible. They operate on the premise that city people seek the sight of emptiness, obvious order and quiet. Nothing could be less true. The presences of great numbers of people gathered together in cities should not only be frankly accepted as a physical fact – they should also be enjoyed as an asset and their presence celebrated…” 
 (Jane Jacobs, cited by Project for Public Spaces 2014)


Jacobs approached cities as living beings and ecosystems. She suggested that over time, buildings, streets and neighborhoods function as dynamic organisms, changing in response to how people interact with them. She explained how each element of a city – sidewalks, parks, neighborhoods, government, economy – functions together synergistically, in the same manner as the natural ecosystem. This understanding helps us discern how cities work, how they break down, and how they could be better structured.


Jacobs advocated for “mixed-use” urban development – the integration of different building types and uses, whether residential or commercial, old or new. According to this idea, cities depend on a diversity of buildings, residences, businesses and other non-residential uses, as well as people of different ages using areas at different times of day, to create community vitality. She saw cities as being “organic, spontaneous, and untidy,” and views the intermingling of city uses and users as crucial to economic and urban development.


Jacobs contested the traditional planning approach that relies on the judgment of outside experts, proposing that local expertise is better suited to guiding community development. She based her writing on empirical experience and observation, noting how the prescribed government policies for planning and development are usually inconsistent with the real-life functioning of city neighborhoods.


Although orthodox planning theory had blamed high density for crime, filth, and a host of other problems, Jacobs disproved these assumptions and demonstrated how a high concentration of people is vital for city life, economic growth, and prosperity. While acknowledging that density alone does not produce healthy communities, she illustrated through concrete examples how higher densities yield a critical mass of people that is capable of supporting more vibrant communities. In exposing the difference between high density and overcrowding, Jacobs dispelled many myths about high concentrations of people. Local Economies By dissecting how cities and their economies emerge and grow, Jacobs cast new light on the nature of local economies. She contested the assumptions that cities are a product of agricultural advancement; that specialized, highly efficient economies fuel long-term growth; and that large, stable businesses are the best sources of innovation. Instead, she developed a model of local economic development based on adding new types of work to old, promoting small businesses, and supporting the creative impulses of urban entrepreneurs." (Project for Public Spaces, 2014)
"To generate diversity....the district must mingle buildings that vary in age and condition." - (Jacobs cited by Tibaulds, 2001)


Damien Wooliscroft. (2012). Jane Jacobs: The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961). Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

Edmund P. Fowler (1995). Building Cities That Work. 2nd ed. Canada: Mc-Gill Queen's University Press. 67.

Francis Tibbalds (2001). Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the Public Environment in Towns and Cities. London: Spon Press. 145.

Institue Of Urbanology Admin. (2014). Institue Of Urbanology. Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

Jane Jacobs (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. USA: Vintage.

Professor Lineu Castello (2010). Rethinking the Meaning of Place: Conceiving Place in Architecture-Urbanism. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited. 149.

Project for Public Spaces. (2014). Jane Jacobs. Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014

Tuesday, 16 December 2014

The Social Value Of Public Spaces

“Public spaces facilitate the exchange of ideas, friendships, goods and skills.”

- (Dines and Cattell et al, cited by worpole and knox, 2006)

During my research i stumbled across a report, published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, called, 'The Social Value of Public Spaces'. The idea of a social function and benefit within public spaces was something that I've realised i always took for granted and not something i had previously properly thought about or studied. The report stated that public spaces played a vital role in the social and economic life of communities and that new kinds of public spaces were now being created in towns and cities, which could become important social resources. The report was a summary of research projects undertaken in England and Wales, in which, Ken Worpole and Katherine Knox explored just how people used public space, how these places functioned, and their social value.

The report states its key findings were;

■ Public spaces (including high streets, street markets, shopping precincts,community centres, parks, playgrounds, and neighbourhood spaces in residential areas) play a vital role in the social life of communities. They act as a ‘self-organising public service’, a shared resource in which experiences and value are created (Mean and Tims, cited by Worpole and Knox, 2010).
 ■ Public spaces offer many benefits: the ‘feel-good’ buzz from being part of a busy street scene; the therapeutic benefits of quiet time spent on a park bench; places where people can display their culture and identities and learn awareness of diversity and difference; opportunities for children and young people to meet, play or simply ‘hang out’. All have important benefits and help to create local attachments, which are at the heart of a sense of community (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
■ The success of a particular public space is not solely in the hands of the architect, urban designer or town planner; it relies also on people adopting, using and managing the space – people make places, more than places make people (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
■ The use of public spaces varies according to the time of day and day of the week, and is affected by what is on offer in a particular place at a particular time. In one town centre studied there was a clear rhythm to the day, with older people shopping in the central market early on, children and young people out at the end of the school day, and young adults dominating the town centre at night. (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
 ■ Some groups may be self-segregating in their use of different public spaces at different times, with social norms affecting how and whether people engage with others. Public spaces are a particular and distinct resource for young people looking to socialise with others. However, groups of young people are sometimes perceived as having antisocial intentions, which in many cases is simply not true (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
■ Retailing and commercial leisure activities dominate town centres, and though public space can act as a ‘social glue’ the research found that in some places ‘the society that is being held together is a stratified one, in which some groups are routinely privileged over others’ (Holland et al, 2006). So, for instance, young and older people are discouraged from frequenting shopping areas by lack of seating or (for groups of younger people) by being ‘moved on’ (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
 ■ The research challenges several current government policy assumptions concerning public space. The ‘urban renaissance’ agenda appears too concerned with matters of urban design, as well as being distinctly metropolitan in character. The majority of public spaces that people use are local spaces they visit regularly, often quite banal in design, or untidy in their activities or functions (such as street markets and car boot sales), but which nevertheless retain important social functions (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
■ The research questions whether the government’s emphasis on crime and safety in public spaces is depriving them of their historic role as a place where differences of lifestyles and behaviour are tolerated and co-exist. What is considered ‘antisocialbehaviour’ may vary from street to street, from one public situation to the next, or from one person to the next (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
■ It is also important for policy-makers and practitioners to recognise that so-called marginal or problem groups, such as young people, or street sex workers, are also a part of the community. Definitions of ‘community’ that exclude particular groups are of questionable legitimacy in the long term (Worpole and Knox, 2010).
■ Regeneration strategies or policing approaches intended to ‘design out crime’ can end up ‘designing out’ people. Approaches that strip public spaces of all features vulnerable to vandalism or misuse actively discourage local distinctiveness and public amenity (Worpole and Knox, 2010).

With my current gallery design project in mind i was quite keen to find out what makes social spaces successful and whether the integration of the spatial features and behaviours would be benefitial or relevant to my design. I found a piece within the report that answered the question...

"What are the main features of successful social spaces?

The study of a wide variety of public spaces in Cardiff, Preston and Swindon (Mean and Tims 2005, cited by Worpole and Knox, 2010), suggested the following ‘rules of engagement’ were important in creating shared social spaces:
  • Access and availability - good physical access, welcoming spaces and extended opening times.
  • Invitations by peers and others - embeded in social networks to encourage use
  • Exchange - based relationships - moving beyond consumerism to participation in the exchange of goods and services.
  • Choreography of spaces by discreet good management while also leaving room for self organisation
  • Moving beyond mono-cultures - encouraging diverse groups and activities to share common spaces
  • The study of markets (Watson with Studdert 2006) found that in addition to accessibility, the essential attributes of successful markets (criteria which could also apply to other public spaces) included:
  • Having features that attracted visitors to the site
  • An active and engaged community of traders to provide goods for sale and contribute to the social scene
  • Opportunities to linger through the provision of cafes and food vans or ‘comfort zones." 


Ken Worpole and Katharine Knox. (2010). The social value of public spaces. Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

The Report cited other research projects commissioned under the Joseph Rowntree Foundation’s Public Spaces Programme, as well as other relevant research;

Melissa Mean and Charlie Tims (September 2005) People
make places: Growing the public life of cities. Published
by Demos. Report available from

Nicholas Dines and Vicky Cattell with Wil Gesler and
Sarah Curtis (Queen Mary, University of London)
(September 2006) Public spaces, social relations and wellbeing
in East London. Published by The Policy Press for
the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Report and summary
available from

Sophie Watson with David Studdert (Open University)
(September 2006) Markets as spaces for social interaction:
Spaces of diversity. Published by The Policy Press for
the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Report and summary
available from

Jane Pitcher, Rosie Campbell, Phil Hubbard, Maggie
O’Neill and Jane Scoular (Staffordshire, Loughborough
and Strathclyde Universities) (May 2006) Living and
working in areas of street sex work: From conflict to
coexistence. Published by The Policy Press for the

Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Report and summary
available from

Caroline Holland, Andrew Clark, Jeanne Katz and Sheila
Peace (Open University) (April 2007) Social Interactions in
Urban Public Places. Published by The Policy Press for
the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Report and summary
available from

Peter Jones, Marian Roberts and Linda Morris, with
Pushpa Arabindoo, Budhi Mulyawan and Alex Upton
(University of Westminster) (April 2007) Mixed use streets:
Enhancing liveability and reconciling conflicting pressures.
Published by The Policy Press for the Joseph Rowntree
Foundation. Report and summary available from www.jrf.

All the Worlds A Stage

Anna Karenina was never a film I thought that I would love but thanks to the clever theatre structure of the film and beautiful set design I found myself drawn into the story. After watching the film I wanted to take a deeper look into the design process the art department went through in order to come up with one of the most original set designs I’ve seen within a movie to date. The films setting takes place within a singular theatre, the space is then adapted to portray Moscow or St.Petersburg where the majority of the story of Anna Karenina takes place. The versatile set design was not only able to appear effortless in its scene changes but also managed to portray social and cultural aspects. In particular I was interested in finding out how award winning Set Designer Sarah Greenwood, who worked on the project alongside director Joe Wright, interpreted Tolstoy’s portrayal of Russian high society and the ever changing influences of Europe in Nineteenth Century Russia through the singular theatre set within which the film takes place.

Trailer (2012)

Production Design - Set Sketches

Nineteenth Century Russia – Tale of two cities

During the time in which Tolstoy was writing Anna Karenina, Russia had been experiencing an influx of Western thought, politics, and technology, more popularly known as progress (Millner, 2001). Director Joe Wright therefore came up with the idea of setting the movie in a derelict theatre, in order to give the feel of decaying 19th century Russian Society (Fox, 2012), whilst allowing a juxtaposition of the modern European influences (in particular Louis XIV's France) seen in the sets created for scenes in the new capital, St. Petersburg, against the spaces designed for the robustly Russian traditions of Moscow.

The above images are examples of the interiors of The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, built in 1824.

An example of the interiors of the Palace of Cathererine the great, in Tsarkoye Sello, St. Petersburg built in 1749. The interiors were comisioned by Alexander I in 1817 to be refurbished in the Empire style, previously called Louis XVI style.

Film set; Anna Karenina's Saint Petersburg Residence - where the film opens

Film set; Moscow restaurant
High Society - Ballrooms and Chandeliers

Through the story of Anna Karenina Tolstoy offers an amazing portrayal of the rules and rituals typical of Russian High Society during the nineteenth century, “dinners, balls, parties, horse-riding and croquet games” (Millner, 2001).  However Russian high society was gradually beginning to erode in the second half of the Nineteenth century due to the changes in social composition, legal status, and cultural attitudes. (Woodworth, 2007). “Framing [the set] in this derelict theatre was a fantastic concept, given the theatricality of high society in St Petersburg and Moscow at the time,” Greenwood said, noting it also allowed them to move between scenes, from restaurants to ice-rinks to racecourses, "with dizzying fluidity: rarely has a production designer’s work been so foregrounded in a film" (Fox, citing Greenwood 2012).

Film set; Ice Rink

Film set; Ballroom

Of the scene below, Greenwood (cited by Murphy 2013) commented on the design process for the choice of wallpaper used in the set stating...“In this image, the back wall was in fact the wallpaper we saw on our trip to Russia in a room in the Summer palace of Catherine the Great...When we got back to the U.K and looked at each other’s pictures, it was a photograph that we’d all taken....Clouds and other heavenly elements were added to the design and this is how the set appears in the film".
Film set; Ballroom

A 19th century painting of the Ballroom in the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Greenwood not only allowed popular social and cultural ques from Russia durring the nineteenth century to shape and design the sets she created, she also drew upon the characters psychological condition for some of the key design choices, in particular the scene where Anna suffers a breakdown in the Moscow hotel. In choosing the perusian blue silk damask that drapes the walls and upholstery in the room, Greenwood (cited by Dawes, 2012) stated that, “At that point she is morphine-addicted and coming apart, so we created an oppresive room and colour, and put mirrors down the hall to make it even more disorienting.” 

The Production design team, including Sarah Greenwood and director Joe Wright, visited Russia pre-production in order to view the architecture aswell as conducting research on the design styles of that period. Due to artistic liberties being taken elsewhere in the production design, Sarah Greenwood was adament that the set design needed to stick to the traditional nineteenth century look and worked closely with an illustrator named Eva Kuntz to create the concept art (Murphy, 2013). "The overall undertaking was enormous in retrospect...requiring ingenious transitions between theatrical space and another to maintain an illusion of seamless movement"(Greenwood cited by Dawes, 2012). Reporter Killian Fox asked designer Sarah Greenwood in an interview whether all the "mayhem" and "hard graft" was worthwhile, Greenwood (cited by fox, 2012) responded by saying, 

"With hindsight, it wouldve been dull had we just done a period drama...This was much more exciting."

Creating the Extraordinary World of Anna Karenina Featurette;

This short video gives an insight into the desicion behind chosing a singular set for the film aswell as the reactions of the cast and crew and some of the challenges and creative solutions, of worrking with a singular set. As Joe Wright says in the start of the video, he visited many of the locations in Russia, speaking to people who told him that numerous film versions of Anna Karenina had already been shot there. This appeared to be the driving force behind the singualr set desicion. An idea i personally feel has benefited the film and as actress Keira Knightley states, changes the rules of a period drama. The subsequent design of the theatre and creative scene changes aswell as the translation of cultural and social aspects of that time through the design, means the beautiful and lavish sets make the film look and feel very different to any period film i had seen before, i just could not turn it off. I have seen a few plays and musicals in theatres and expect parts of the experience to require my imagination but i have never seen the malgamation of theatre and film quite like this before and thought it worked fantastically. I would definately recommend watching this film if you havent seen it already.


Amy Dawes. (2012). All the film’s a stage in ‘Anna Karenina’.Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

Bradley Woodworth. (2007). Aristocracy in Late Nineteenth-century Russian Society. Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

Caille Millner. (2001). Anna Karenina Themes. Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

Killian Fox. (2012). How Joe Wright's vision of Anna Karenina was brought to life. Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

Mekado Murphy. (2013). Below the Line; The Design of 'Anna Karenina'. Available: Last accessed 16/12/2014.

Other sites: 134